European ST-T Database 1.0.0

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The <a href="/index.shtml">European ST-T Database</a> was produced as
a result of the European Community's &ldquo;Concerted Action on Ambulatory
Monitoring&rdquo; (project II.2.4, Ambulatory Monitoring, contract MR049;
see <a href="#refs">references</a> below), which was begun in 1985
with the goal of defining an ECG database as a reference for assessing
the quality of ambulatory ECG analysis systems.  Experts from twelve
nations participated in this initial phase of the project.  Given the
existence of two standard arrhythmia databases [the <a
href="/physiobank/database/mitdb/">MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database</a> and the
AHA Database for Ventricular Arrhythmia Detectors], and the
need to evaluate ischemia detectors, the participants agreed to
concentrate on developing a standard for annotating ST segment and
T-wave changes.  The European ST-T database was thus designed to complement
rather than to replicate the AHA and MIT-BIH databases.</p>

Funding from the European Community supported development of the annotation
protocol and of a small prototype database.  The Concerted Action ended in
1986.  Development of the database was continued by the joint efforts of the
Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Research Council (CNR) in
Pisa (Italy) and the Thoraxcenter of Erasmus University in Rotterdam
(Netherlands), with the voluntary participation of thirteen research groups
from eight countries which provided ECG recordings and contributed to the
demanding work of annotating them.  The European Society of Cardiology
agreed to sponsor the remainder of the project, providing both financial and
scientific backing so as to enable completion of the database.</p>

Creation of the Database has been supported with dedication and
enthusiasm by many cardiologists, Holter technicians, laboratory
assistants, and engineers at research institutions throughout the
European Community and beyond.  We gratefully acknowledge their
contributions.  In particular, we wish to thank:</p>

<li> The <i>Project Management Group</i>, whose members directed the
European Community's Concerted Action on Ambulatory Monitoring:
<i>D. Clement</i> (Belgium),
<i>P. Coumel</i> (France),
<i>C. Marchesi</i> (Italy),
<i>F. Stott</i> (United Kingdom), and
<i>C. Zeelenberg</i> (Netherlands).</li>

<li> The <i>research groups</i> which contributed to the definition of the
protocol for annotating ST-T changes.  The leaders of these research groups
<i>A. Algra</i> (Netherlands),
<i>A. Bayes de Luna</i> (Spain),
<i>A. Biagini</i> (Italy),
<i>P. Bjerregaard</i> (Denmark),
<i>S. Chierchia</i> (United Kingdom),
<i>C. Contini</i> (Italy),
<i>F. Fillette</i> (France),
<i>E. Hoberg</i> (Federal Republic of Germany),
<i>P. Maisonblanche</i> (France),
<i>R.G. Mark</i> (USA),
<i>J.L. Medvedovsky</i> (France),
<i>S. Moulopoulos</i> (Greece),
<i>K. von Olshausen</i> (Federal Republic of Germany),
<i>O. Pahlm</i> (Sweden),
<i>E. Sandoe</i> (Denmark),
<i>N. Saranummi</i> (Finland),
<i>G. Specchia</i> (Italy),
<i>A. Taddei</i> (Italy),
<i>D. Tayler</i> (United Kingdom),
<i>J. Willems</i> (Belgium), and
<i>Chr. Zywietz</i> (Federal Republic of Germany).</li>

<li> The experts who contributed ECG recordings and performed the difficult
task of beat-by-beat annotation of the ECGs:
<i>A. Algra</i> (Netherlands),
<i>L.P. Anthopoulos</i> (Greece),
<i>A. Biagini</i> (Italy),
<i>P. Bjerregaard</i> (Denmark),
<i>G. Del Rosso</i> (Italy),
<i>F. Fillette</i> (France),
<i>N. Ghanem</i> (France),
<i>E. Hoberg</i> (Federal Republic of Germany),
<i>M.T. La Rovere</i> (Italy),
<i>H. Le Brun</i> (Netherlands),
<i>P. Maisonblanche</i> (France),
<i>M.G. Mazzei</i> (Italy),
<i>H. Mickley</i> (Denmark),
<i>M. Moller</i> (Denmark),
<i>K. von Olshausen</i> (Federal Republic of Germany),
<i>T. Parviainen</i> (Finland),
<i>A. Petersen</i> (Denmark), and
<i>P. Torner</i> (Spain).</li>

<li> The members of the <i>Coordinating Group</i> at the Institute of
Clinical Physiology;  particularly we mention for their continuous and
and significant contributions to the realization of the database:
<i>A. Biagini, G. Distante, M. Emdin, C. Marchesi, M.G. Mazzei, P. Pisani,
N. Roggero, A. Taddei</i> (coordinator), and <i>M. Varanini</i>.  They
designed the database, implemented software and hardware to support its
development, solicited contributions of tapes, arranged and coordinated the
work of the annotators, and supervised the verification of the annotations.</li>

<li> The group of experts of the Thoraxcentrum of Erasmus University, in
particular <i>A. Algra</i> and <i>C. Zeelenberg</i>, who contributed to the
design and development of the database.</li>

<li> Our colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology:
<i>R.G. Mark</i>, who lent early and continuing support and advice;
<i>G.B. Moody</i>, who assisted in editing the final annotations,
developed software for annotation editing and for inclusion on the CD-ROM,
and coordinated preparation of the CD-ROM version of the database and this
directory; and
<i>F. Jager</i> (visiting MIT from the Faculty of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia), who reviewed the ST episodes in detail
and identified episodes of axis shift.</li>

<h3 id="refs">References</h3>

<li> Marchesi C.  The European Community Concerted Action on Ambulatory
Monitoring.  <i>Journal of Med. Eng. and Techn.</i> <b>10</b>:131-134 (1986).</li>

<li> Taddei A, Benassi A, Biagini A, Bongiorni MG, Contini C, Distante G,
Landucci L, Mazzei MG, Pisani P, Roggero N, Varanini M, Marchesi C.  ST-T
change analysis in ECG ambulatory monitoring: a European standard for
performance evaluation.  <i>Computers in Cardiology</i> <b>14</b>:63-68 (1987).</li>

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