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This section is a compendium of sources for databases and related materials that may be useful to readers of this guide. Please send any corrections to the author (email@example.com).
PhysioNet offers free access via the web to large collections of recorded physiologic signals and related open-source software. The PhysioNet web site is a public service of the PhysioNet Resource funded by the National Institutes of Health’s NIBIB and NIGMS. The master PhysioNet web server is located at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts; about ten public mirrors are located elsewhere in the US and around the world (see http://physionet.org/mirrors/ for a list).
National Research Council (CNR) Institute of Clinical Physiology Dept. of Bioengineering and Medical Informatics via Trieste, 41 56126 PISA, Italy email: firstname.lastname@example.org telephone: +39 050 501145 telefax: +39 050 503596
Over half of this database has been contributed to PhysioNet (see above), from which it may be downloaded freely.
ECRI 5200 Butler Pike Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462 USA email: email@example.com WWW: http://www.ecri.org/ telephone: +1 610 825 6000
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation 1110 N Glebe Road, Suite 220 Arlington, VA 22201 USA WWW: http://www.aami.org/ telephone: +1 703 525 4890 telefax: +1 703 276 0793
CinC is the major scientific meeting at which current research in ECG signal processing and modelling is discussed; the proceedings of the conference are probably the single best source of information in print about these topics. CinC conferences have taken place annually since 1974, usually in September. They are usually convened in North America and in Europe in alternate years. The deadline for submission of abstracts is on or about 1 May each year. Proceedings of CinC conferences since 2006 are available on-line at http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/, and usually appear about a month after the date of the conference. CinC will be in in Bologna (Italy) in 2008, and in Park City, Utah (USA) in 2009.
Since 2000, Computers in Cardiology and PhysioNet have jointly sponsored an annual series of open challenges that invite participants to address topics of interest to researchers and clinicians, often involving the study of WFDB-compatible data sets made available via PhysioNet, and culminating with research presentations and awards at CinC. See http://physionet.org/challenge/ for further information.
CinC proceedings from 2001 to present are available on-line at http://www.cinc.org/archives/.
IEEE members can find CinC proceedings from 1988 to the present using IEEEXplore (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/). Many universities provide access to these services for their students, faculty, and staff. Printed volumes of CinC proceedings are available from:
IEEE Customer Service 445 Hoes Lane P.O. Box 1331 Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331 USA email: firstname.lastname@example.org WWW: http://www.ieee.org/ieeestore/ telephone: 1 800 678 IEEE (USA and Canada) or +1 732 981 0060 telefax: +1 732 981 9667
Free Software Foundation 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA email: email@example.com WWW: http://www.gnu.org/ telephone: +1 617 542 5942
GNU software is included in all Linux distributions (in fact, since Linux
is the name of the kernel only, and the largest component of these
distributions is actually GNU software, it is proper to refer to them as
GNU/Linux distributions). GNU software for all popular (and many other)
operating systems is available on CDROM or tape from the address above, and
is also freely available by anonymous FTP from
ftp.gnu.org and and many
other archive sites. Please support the FSF with a donation if you use GNU
This software is available by anonymous FTP from CTAN (Comprehensive TeX
Archive Network) mirrors, including
ctan.tug.org. Many of the sources of GNU software (above) also make
TeX, etc. available. CTAN is indexed on the World Wide Web (one such index
The Unix TeX distribution is also distributed on CDROM and in other tape formats by the Free Software Foundation (address above) and others. It is also included with most GNU/Linux distributions (see below).
Several commercial implementations of TeX for MS-DOS, MS-Windows, and Mac OS are widely available; visit the web site of the TeX Users Group (below) for pointers.
TeX Users Group PO Box 2311 Portland, OR 97208-2311 USA WWW: http://www.tug.org/ email: firstname.lastname@example.org telephone: +1 503 223 3960 telefax: +1 503 223 9994
libcurl library is a modern and enhanced replacement for the
libwww libraries (see below). It provides the low-level functions needed
to support the WFDB library’s (optional) NETFILES capability.
libwww libraries, created and maintained by the World Wide Web
Consortium, were used in the original implementation of NETFILES. Since these
libraries are no longer maintained, the WFDB library now uses
Sources for XView are available from PhysioNet.
GNU/Linux is a POSIX-compliant reimplementation of the Unix operating system, written by Linus Torvalds and a cast of thousands. It runs on Intel 386, 486, and Pentium PCs, among others. For information about GNU/Linux, visit the web site of the Linux Documentation Project:
GNU/Linux is freely available by anonymous FTP in source and binary form from many sites, including:
www.kernel.org metalab.unc.edu ftp.funet.fi
Many low-cost (typically US$10 to US$30) distributions of GNU/Linux on CDROMs are widely available. Among the more popular are:
Debian (non-commercial) WWW: http://www.debian.org/ Fedora (non-commercial) WWW: http://fedoraproject.org/ Gentoo (non-commercial) WWW: http://www.gentoo.org/ Knoppix (non-commercial, live CD) WWW: http://www.knoppix.org/ Mandriva WWW: http://www.mandriva.com/ Red Hat WWW: http://www.redhat.com/ Slackware (non-commercial) WWW: http://www.slackware.com/ SuSE (Novell) WWW: http://www.novell.com/linux/ Ubuntu WWW: http://www.ubuntu.com/
Any ANSI/ISO C compiler can be used to compile the WFDB library and applications that use it. Under Unix and GNU/Linux, high-quality free compilers and development tools are universally available and taken for granted. Even if you must work in the MS-Windows or MS-DOS environment, however, there is no reason to purchase expensive, bloated, and inferior proprietary compilers and software development systems, since there are several excellent, highly recommended, and completely free alternatives based on the GNU C/C++ compiler (gcc).
Using any of these packages does not limit you to creating free (open
source) software, although you are certainly encouraged to do so. If you
wish to develop and sell proprietary software using
gcc, this is
certainly possible, with fewer and less severe restrictions than you
will encounter if using a commercial compiler.
This is a freely available software development platform for MS-Windows
9x/NT/2000/ME/XP, based on GNU
gcc and a large set of Unix
utilities developed by the GNU project and ported to MS-Windows by
Cygnus Software (now part of Red Hat, see above). Cygwin itself is
open-source software and is highly recommended in preference to
commercial C/C++ compilers if you must work in the MS-Windows
environment. The WFDB Software Package binaries available via PhysioNet
are created using Cygwin.
This is another freely available software development platform for MS-Windows,
also based on
gcc and many of the same utilities as Cygwin. The
difference is that applications built by MinGW gcc use the native MS-Windows C
library, while those built by Cygwin gcc generally use Cygwin’s Unix-compatible
standard C library.
A freely available software development platform for MS-DOS, including
gcc, a free 32-bit DOS extender, and many of the same utilties
as Cygwin and MinGW.
Microstar Laboratories 2265 116th Avenue N.E. Bellevue, WA 98004 USA email: email@example.com/ WWW: http://www.mstarlabs.com/ telephone: +1 425 453 2345 telefax: +1 425 453 3199
The most popular Web browsers may be downloaded at these locations:
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